Ateneo Center for Asian Studies


cordially invites you to




11 March 2009, 9:30 to 3:50, Ricardo Leong Center for Chinese Studies Conference Hall, 2nd floor, Ricardo & Dr. Rosita Leong Hall




9:30-9:40 Introduction to the workshop, explanation of the proceedings, introduction of the morning speakers by Kishi Toshihiko and Lydia N. Yu-Jose


9:40-10:00 Sugaya Nariko (Ehime University), "Spain's Chinese Policy in the Early Modern Philippines"


10:00-10:20 Comments by Francis A. Gealogo (Ateneo de Manila University)


10:20-10:40 Q and A


10:40-11:00 Kim Bongjin (University of Kitakyushu), "Reception and Change of the Idea of 'Right(s)' in Nishi Amane: Comparison with Yu Kilchun"


11:00-11:20 Anton Luis C. Sevilla (Ateneo de Manila University), "An Analysis of Dogen's Buddha-Nature as an Ethical Ought"


11:20-11:40 Q and A


11:40-1:20 Lunch Break


1:20-1:30 Introduction of the afternoon speakers by Meynardo Mendoza (member, ACAS Board of Directors)


1:30-1:50 Chen Laixing (University of Hyogo), "A Comparative Perspective of the Overseas Chinese Societies in the Pacific Rim Regions after the 19th Century"


1:50-2:10 Comments by Ellen H. Palanca (Ateneo de Manila University)


2:10-2:30 Q and A


2:30-2:50 Kishi Toshihiko (Kanagawa University), "Source Material Digitalization and Chinese Studies in Japan"


2:50-3:10 Lourdes T. David (Ateneo de Manila University), "Comparative Analysis of the Asian Collections of Two Philippine Libraries for Selected Countries in Asia"


3:10-3:30 Q and A


3:30-3:50 Summation/Conclusion



Please send your reply to acas@admu.edu.ph on or before February 25. In your reply, let us know if you are coming only to the morning session, only to the afternoon session, or to both sessions. Regardless of which session(s) you are attending, you are invited to lunch. Please let us know too, if you are accepting the lunch invitation. Thank you.






Spain's Chinese Policy in the Early Modern Philippines 

By Sugaya Nariko

Ehime University


The Spanish Crown supported the Roman Catholic Church, which was in turn, under the "patronato real de Indias," considered the source of legitimacy of Spanish colonial rule in the Indies.  It was therefore in the Spanish Philippines that all the colonial residents were supposed to embrace the Catholic faith as a sign of submission to the Spanish Crown. The Chinese immigrants to the Spanish Philippines were no exceptions.


They had, however, never been strictly required to adopt the Christian faith for the nearly first two centuries until the mid-eighteenth century.  Then in 1755, Governor Pedro Manuel de Arand�a (1754-59) expelled all the non-Catholic Chinese residents from the Spanish colony. Since then to the early decades of the nineteenth century, the Spanish colonial government had more or less maintained the guidelines effected for the first time by Governor Arand�a for the admittance of the Chinese immigrants; namely, that they had to embrace Catholicism.


This paper hopes to show that the Chinese in the Spanish Philippines had not always been the colony's "Other."  This could particularly be said when practically all the Chinese immigrants embraced the Christian faith during the mid-eighteenth century to the early decades of the nineteenth century.  Often times, the local people, indios or naturales as they were referred to, seemed readily to accept the Chinese in their localities. Taking advantage of their numerical preponderance over the Spaniards, the Chinese immigrants with the closeness to the local communities appeared to have exerted their influence on the indios not only through the various economic activities, but also through the shared "Catholic faith."


The Christian faith in the Spanish Philippines was crucial to the colonial people because it served as the determinant of whether or not one could be considered as the legitimate component of the Spanish colony.  The boundaries between the two peoples; namely, "indios" and "Chinese" or "sangleyes," in those days were not so much clear-cut as we might suppose them to have been from the experiences of our day.


At any rate, being Christian, the Chinese immigrants steadily integrated into the local communities through their marriages to the local women.  Their legitimate children were duly recognized by the Spanish authorities as Chinese mestizos, resulting to the rapid increase of the Chinese mestizos during the latter half of the eighteenth and early decades of the nineteenth centuries, a fact which should lay the foundation for their social rise in the following years.


A Comparative Perspective of the Overseas Chinese Societies in the Pacific Rim Regions after the 19th Century

By Chen Laixing

University of Hyogo


Overseas Chinese studies have become increasingly popular these days. Multi academic approaches have been adopted in this field. In consequence, diversity training is promoted between the scholars from different fields of study and different regions of concern. As a result, almost nothing can be discussed seriously, though.


We all know every region or country has its own specific characteristics surrounding ethnic Chinese issues. They are all different. However, even the most sensitive issue like identity tends to be discussed simply as a whole. Generalization is made mostly based upon the experience of a certain Southeast Asian countries as if it were common elsewhere.


Let me suggest talking more about the similarity between the Chinese communities of different places and then get further into the difference which is brought about by the inherent social and historical circumstances. Discussion on how much contribution overseas Chinese made to their homeland country seems to have been repeatedly centered by many scholars.


Firstly, I would like to focus on the network of overseas Chinese Chambers of Commerce as their commonly profitable social infrastructure. Overseas Chinese were basically linked together with the promoting policy by the Emperor Guangxu of setting up chambers of commerce in 1904, when the Qing dynasty first recognized the importance of commerce and the Chinese advantage of having Chinese merchants out side his Majesty's 'border'. To make clear why and how these Chinese Chambers have developed or stagnated respectively in different cities might provide us a good comparative perspective.

Secondly, undesirable influence exerted by the conflict between the CCP and the KMT is a common issue for most overseas Chinese communities after the WWII. Depending on the education and experience of 'Taiwanese' there and the state's diplomatic relation with either of Chinese Governments, the community's political map differs.


The target port cities in this paper I am going to compare are Hong Kong under British rule, Kobe of Japan from the Meiji Restoration to the post-World War II period and San Francisco. Singapore, Penang, Manila, Inchon, Shanghai, Guangzhou and some cities in the Dutch East Indies may be cited.


Reception and Change of the Concept of Right(s) in the Thought of Nishi Amane and Yu Kilchun

By Kim Bongjin

University of Kitakyushu


Reception is a process. And it entails hybridization of 'ours' and 'others'.' In the process of receiving foreign concepts or anything foreign, the foreign used to be hybridized with the native. Receiving the concept of 'modern Western' right(s), it was not alien to many intellectuals in East Asian countries. They had in 'tradition' their own various conceptions or ideas of right(s). By the way, the concept of right(s) contains ambiguity, even contradictory meanings such as 'rightness' and 'power.' Perceiving this matter, East Asian intellectuals translated it into various terms. However, problems of translation inevitably happen there.


The modern Western concept of right(s) or the idea of natural rights (and law) was introduced to the East Asian countries China, Japan, and Korea, through the mediation of Confucian thought, especially with the help of neo-Confucian concepts. For example, ziranquan (自然; natural rights), tianfurenquan (天賦人; rights endowed by Heaven)' or xingfa (性法)/ziranfa (自然法; natural law) could not be introduced without the neo-Confucian concepts of the 'Heavenly Principle of Nature, tianli ziran (天理自然)' or the idea of 'Nature as Principle /Reason, xing ze li (性理).' Here mediation means a way of reception which entails hybridization between 'ours' and 'others'.' In the process of receiving foreign concepts or ideas, the foreign concept usually were hybridized with native concepts.


In this paper, I will examine the mode of reception and the change of the concept of right(s) in the thought of Nishi Amane (1829-97) and will compare Nishi with Yu Kilchun (1856-1914). How did both receive the concept of the natural rights and law? How did the notion of right(s) change in both? In this process of change, both tackled the question how to coordinate the relationship between rights and power; between natural rights and law-bound rights (i.e., people's rights enacted by law). Before answering these questions, in the next section, I would like to discuss the problems of translation concerned with renderings of right(s). Lastly, I will analyze of the differences in legal thinking of Nishi and Yu.


Key words: right(s), reception, hybridization, problems of translation, Nature(性), Principle /Reason(理), power, ambiguity, contradiction, modern, tradition, West-centric universalism.


Source Material Digitalization and Chinese Studies in Japan

By Toshihiko Kishi

Kanagawa University


During the 1990s, when the World Wide Web was developed and the Internet became commercialized, attention was drawn to the possibilities of their

application to Chinese studies.


In Japan, particularly around 2000, epoch-making attempts were begun to convert bibliographic data, which had theretofore been disseminated through the print medium, into the digital medium. One of these attempts involved Chinese bibliographical studies. One more model tested during this time was "Scripta Sinica" at the Academia Sinica Computing Center in Taiwan, which today offers about 50 million characters of complete text related to Chinese history, the classics and literature. Complete text searching is different from the conventional bibliographic and subject index databases in that source materials themselves can be handled on a computer screen.


In contrast, Japan has gradually moved away from complete text database creation to collections of image facsimiles. The best example of this is the Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR) which was opened in the National Archives during November 2001 and now makes available on its website source materials held by the Archives, the Foreign Ministry Diplomatic History Museum and the National Defense Research Institute Library. One more similar project is the National Diet Library's Modern Digital Library containing its uncopyrighted holdings from the Meiji and Taisho eras, offered free of charge.


The means to take such non-textual image data off the pages and put it into cyberspace was accomplished by the creation of the high resolution JPEG image compression format in 1994 and the development of all the digital cameras, scanners and monitors able bring it onto our desktops. And in the midst of a growing interest in regional studies, attempts as database creation in China research began from the 1990s on to reexamine methods for emphasizing personal names, historical eras and keywords, in order to focus on specific geographical areas crisscrossing with and expanding into the world at large.


Today researchers are not at all satisfied with databases, be they bibliographic, textual or image, that are already "precooked," preferring those that can be altered and orchestrated to their particular needs, as long as the data is reliable.


Zen Buddhism as Creative Ethics: An Analysis of Dogen's Buddha-Nature as an Ethical Ought

By Anton Luis C. Sevilla, M.A.

Ateneo de Manila University


Kim Bongjin's essay highlights the difference of how the concept of rights (kenri, 権利) is understood by Nishi Amane and Yu Kilchun. Human rights are often placed at the very foundation of not only political systems but ethical systems as a whole. But reading Kim's essay, one must ask the question: what is the fate of ethics in the absence of a strong notion of inherent human rights? If Japanese Confucianism has an underdeveloped notion of principle (ri, 理), a principle crucial for this notion of inherent rights, where then might a foundation for ethics be found? Guided by Kim's insightful questioning, this essay probes into a possibility of an ethics that is not founded on the notion of rights, a creative ethics devoid of conceptual universals. The author proposes that this creative ethics can be found in Zen Buddhism, with its foundations in Dogen's (道元) central notion of Buddha-nature (busshou, 仏性). In this paper, we shall explore 1) the meaning of creative ethics, 2) the features of Buddha-nature with respect to being, time, nothingness and impermanence, and 3) what it might mean to found an ethics on such a ground.


Comparative Analysis of the the Asian Collections of Two Libraries in the Metro Manila Area for Selected Countries

By Lourdes T. David

Ateneo de Manila University


The study determined the uniqueness, degree of overlap and strengths of the collections of the Asian Library, Ramon Magsaysay Awards Foundation and the Rizal Library, Ateneo de Manila University in several areas for selected countries in Asia. The study was carried out to assess the possibility of cooperative acquisitions between the two libraries.