Localized Disaster Risk Management Index for the Philippines: Is Your Municipality Ready for the Next Disaster?

By Ravago, Majah-Leah V.

Published at the International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 51, December 2020, 101913


We developed a Localized Disaster Risk Management Index (DRMI) that measures how well local government units (LGUs) in the Philippines prepare for a disaster. Focusing on LGUs that have experienced at least one of the four hydrometeorological hazards, strong winds and rain, floods, landslide/mudslide, and big waves, we capture in one number the ex post and ex ante risk management strategies that influence post disaster outcomes. Given the nature of our data, we used the iterative principal component analysis to compute for the LGUs' Localized DRMI, which was then correlated with conditions, outcomes, and social indicators. Our results show a negative correlation between localized DRMI and recovery, which means that LGUs with high Localized DRMI scores are also those that have not fully recovered. This does not mean that these LGUs would be better off having lower scores. This result implies LGUs that perform well in terms of Localized DRMI scores are also those that frequently experience very severe disasters due to hydrometeorological hazards. Just as they are recovering from a disaster, another one hits them. This is corroborated by other correlation results: positive for severity and frequency, positive for poverty, and negative for LGUs’ revenue.

Updates of Empirical Estimates of Marxian Categories: The Philipines 1961–2012

By Venida, Victor S.

Published at Social Transformations: Journal of the Global South Vol. 8, No. 1, May 2020


The economics of developing countries have a dualist structure in which feudal and capitalist modes coexist and interact. For the Philippines, this dualism is evident. This paper analyzes the Philippines's economic structure through a theoretical framework that draws on a Marxian theory interpreted by Woldd (1977, 1979): the model of social disarticulation and the creation of relative surplus value. Adding on to estimates for 1961-2000 for further analysis, this paper updates the estimated Marxian categories for the Phlippines using the Input-Output tables from 1961 to 2012 and the formal model used by Venida (2007,2011). Results of the estimates show labor productivity improvements from 2000 to 2012, which point to the possibility that the Philippine economy could have begun to transition to further capitalist expansion. 

Keywords: input-output, labor productivity, Marxian theory, Philippines, relative surplus value

Data from a Survey of the Philippines’ Local Governments on their Risk Management Strategies to Natural Disasters

By Ravago, Majah-Leah V.

Published at the Data in Brief, Volume 33, December 2020, 106548


This data is from a survey of Local Government Units Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) Office in the Philippines. Conducted in 2016–2017, the survey was intended to assess the disaster risk reduction and mitigation programs and policies employed by the local government on types of disaster due to natural hazards. The survey data covers 47 provinces (including Metro Manila) with 193 municipalities and cities. The sampling design followed a multi-stage probability scheme taking into account the high-risk and low-risk disaster areas. This data article describes the framework and design of the survey and highlights the creation of indices and other outcome variables based on the survey. It also provides information on the field operations including data cleaning and processing that may be useful to those undertaking similar surveys. The dataset is in comma-separated values file (.csv) with accompanying data dictionary (.txt). The questionnaire is also included in the data supplementary appendix. This data article is an adjunct to the research article, “Localized disaster risk management index for the Philippines: Is your municipality ready for the next disaster?” Ravago, et al., 2020, where data interpretation and analysis can be found.

Subjective Well-Being Approach to Valuing Unemployment: Direct and Indirect Cost

By Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

Published at the International Journal of Community Well-Being volume 3, pages 277-287 (2020) 


The study presents a subjective well-being approach to estimating the direct and indirect cost of unemployment. Using a combined dataset from the World Values Survey and the World Development Indicators, the study finds that the indirect cost of unemployment is about twice the size of the direct cost of unemployment. The overall estimate for the cost of unemployment turns out to be 1.5 income quintiles change in income. The finding of the study not only confirms a high price to pay for not working out the unemployment problem but also highlights the importance of public policy that seeks to guarantee employment and provide social protection for the unemployed.

Beja, E.L. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Valuing Unemployment: Direct and Indirect Cost. Int. Journal of Com. WB 3, 277–287 (2020).


Governing the “Golden Age of Infrastructure”: Assessing Transparency Innovations in Philippine Infrastructure Development

By Cruz, Jerome Patrick D.R.

Published at Asian Politics & Policy, 12 (2): 175-204, April 2020


Amidst rising infrastructure investment across the Asia‐Pacific, glaring accountability deficits have raised questions about governments’ capacity to contain corruption in infrastructure development in the region. Recent developments in the Philippines, however, indicate the presence of challenges related to the ability of digitally enhanced transparency measures to bridge such accountability deficits. This article presents the shifting emphasis in transparency and accountability reforms related to Philippine infrastructure development beginning from the 1990s and assesses transparency innovations under the Duterte administration. While milestone measures such as the establishment of an electronic freedom of information (eFOI) platform have provided convenient access to public information, major hurdles remain in obtaining critical documents concerning infrastructure projects. As borne out in an exercise to request the feasibility studies of 48 flagship infrastructure projects, access to information is still obstructed by factors ranging from technical constraints, uneven service delivery, coordination failures, as well as active legal restrictions against the public’s right to know.

Willingness to Pay of Urban Households for the Conservation of Natural Resources and Cultural Heritage in a Neighboring Rural Area: A CVM Study

By Tan, Rosalina Palanca

Published at the Philippine Journal of Science 149 (2): 393-403, June 2020


Koronadal households benefit from Lake Sebu’s natural resources (lakes, waterfalls, rivers and springs, forest land, agricultural land) and cultural heritage (arts and handicrafts such as T’nalak weaving, brass casting, beadwork, and wood carving; music and dances; festivals; and beliefs and traditions of the T’boli indigenous tribe) in terms of recreation, good image and sense of pride, tourism income generation, the supply of high-quality tilapia, agricultural products supply, potential hydroelectric power source, biodiversity, and climate change mitigation. These benefits are integrated into a single estimate using the contingent valuation method. In the study, a sample of 524 Koronadal households was asked for their willingness to pay (WTP) or contribute to natural resources and cultural heritage conservation efforts in Lake Sebu in the form of a lump-sum monthly amount collected together with their electricity bill payment. The mean WTP per month is estimated to be Php 52.42 (USD 1.04) using the probit regression estimates (parametric mean) and Php 64.39 (USD 1.27) using the Turnbull formula (non-parametric mean), both less than 1% (0.26–0.33%) of average monthly household income. Multiplying the annualized WTP by the number of households in Koronadal, total potential annual contributions from Koronadal City would range from Php 29.2–35.7M, about 3% of the City Government’s 2019 total revenues of Php 932.6M (Koronadal City Government Budget Office). Even just a fraction of this potential collection can support essential conservation efforts in Lake Sebu, which – up to the present – have been inadequate due to financial constraints. Moreover, the results of the regression analysis reveal that households are more likely to support the conservation program if the amount of required contribution is smaller and household income is higher. Older and more educated respondents are, likewise, more likely to support the program.

Awards and recognition: Do they matter in teachers’ income trajectory?

By Ravago, Majah-Leah V.

Published at the Studies in Educational Evaluation, Volume 66, September 2020


Do teaching awards affect the growth in income of teachers recognized for excellence? Our study is one of the firsts to use income as the primary indicator of success when evaluating the impact of an award. Taking the case of Metrobank Foundation Award for Outstanding Teachers in the Philippines, our analysis reveals that the award had a higher impact on the income of winners who were in the middle of their career when they received the award. This implies that timing as to when an award is received matters. Relatively younger winners, in their mid-career, have more years in their professional career to capitalize on the award.

Survey data of finalists and winners in the search for outstanding teachers in the Philippines, 1988-2010

By Ravago, Majah-Leah V.

Majah-Leah V. Ravago, Claire Dennis S. Mapa, Survey data of finalists and winners in the search for outstanding teachers in the Philippines, 1988-2010, Data in Brief(2020), doi:


The data derives from a survey of teachers who competed at the national level in the Metrobank Foundation, Inc. Search for Outstanding Teachers in the Philippines from 1988 to 2010. Conducted in March-September 2014, the survey has complete information from 252 national winners and finalists. The survey collected data on teachers’ professional profile, socio-demographic characteristics, community involvement, socioeconomic characteristic of the teachers’ household including income and expenditure, and their overall perception on the search for process. It also collected information from school heads. The data collected by the survey from the school head include statistics on the educational profile of their teachers, performance indicators of the school, physical characteristics of the school, and school head's general assessment of colleagues and overall perception on the search process. The survey also includes information about the financial literacy of teachers. The dataset is in comma-separated values file (.csv) with accompanying data dictionary (.txt). The questionnaire is also included in data supplementary appendix. This data article is related to the research article, “Awards and Recognition: Do they Matter in Teachers’ Income Trajectory?” Ravago and Mapa, 2020, where data interpretation and analysis can be found.